SushiLog

Wondering, wandering, and making sense of the world.

Flower

The automated car and the future

Ever since I worked at DaimlerChrysler in 2006-2007 (before the split), I’ve been thinking about how the world will change with the advent of automated driving. The concept of automated cars have existed for a long time, and a successful highway demonstration was done as early as 1995 in San Diego. Lots have happened since then (and since I started wondering about this) such as Stanley winning the DARPA Grand Challenge and Google getting into the driverless car game and creating an adorable prototype.

Google Automated Car

Back when I was at Daimler, I had many discussions with the people there, and the general prediction was that automated highway driving will happen in 2020 and automated city driving in 2025. With Google throwing an incredible amount of capital into the game, the timeline has moved forward, and we already have semblances of automated highway driving with adaptive cruise control and automated lane keeping. Nevertheless, most of us don’t have access to the technology and still drive our very manual cars to work, to do the groceries, etc.

The technology will improve, become cheaper, and more and more people will have access. How will this future unfold? And how will it affect the way we live? (The following future forecasts are roughly in the order of near term to long term)

Staged Roll Out

Automated driving will not suddenly come to all roads at once, that kind of change is simply too disruptive. As highway driving is more simple (no need to worry about lights or pedestrians), automated highway driving will happen first. New cars with such automated features will initially drive along side manual cars, but dedicated lanes for automated driving will appear. As automated cars will require much less following distance, this will help minimize congestions on those lanes. Sooner or later, in the name of efficiency and safety, all manual driving will be banned from highways.

Manual cars fade out

As with highway driving, more and more city driving will become automated as technology improves and more infrastructure is rolled out (e.g. stop lights with cameras that can communicate with cars). Then after so many years of mixed automated and manual driving on the roads, after virtually everyone owns a car capable of automated driving, manual driving will become illegal in order to “save more lives and increase the efficiency of the roads.” This will be disruptive (all non-automated cars will become obsolete instantaneously) and people will protest (“taking away our god given right to drive!”), but it will inevitably happen. A slightly less drastic comparison: analog broadcast television is being switched off around the world as digital broadcasts are much more efficient with wireless spectrums.

Transportation become services

Public transport and any vehicle for hire with a driver are already transportation services that people utilize. The biggest reasons why more people don’t utilize taxis are financial. The labor cost of the driver is simply too expensive compared to owning a car, storing it, and driving oneself. With the cost of the driver gone, the financial advantage for owning a car becomes minimal and with ICT making arranging vehicles easier, in time, most people will forgo owning a car and rely on automated hire services.

Car brands become irrelevant

As transportation become more of a service and less about ownership, the brand value of automotive companies built up over many decades will plummet. The end user will care less about the car they are riding in and more about the service operator, the true touchpoint between the transportation system and people. You can already see this in the rental car industry where cars are being rented by category (e.g. “compact” “economy” “full size”) rather than the brands of the cars themselves (yes, they are often mentioned but with the caveat “or similar”).

Generic-Car

The industry will consolidate

While the automotive industry has gone through multiple phases of consolidation in the past, automated driving will drastically reduce the number of automotive companies in the world (currently around 30 major players). One factor driving this would be the amount of investment required by companies to compete in the automated car world, not something all car companies will be able to afford.

Another factor is simply the declining automotive market. Currently most private cars sit idle for over twenty hours a day, slowly depreciating and becoming obsolete. With cars becoming services and being utilized virtually 24/7, the demand for cars will decline significantly, shrinking the automotive industry and forcing it to consolidate.

The third factor is that as private transportation becomes more of a service and less of a product, the purchasing dynamic will change. When millions of individuals are making somewhat rational (only cars with good gas mileage) and somewhat irrational (only cars made in my country) decisions on what cars to buy, there is room for many companies. When cars are being bought in bulk by service operators, there will be less room for companies. Think of how many companies make airplanes or trains compared to cars.

The best will vertically integrate

As car brand value diminish and cars become commoditized, the successful car companies will build upwards in the value chain creating their own transportation service along with the required background support services (e.g. maintenance). Other car companies that don’t move fast enough will become low margin commodity providers to new service providers, whoever they may be (Uber?).

Cars will not resemble what they look like today

As the wheel-less one-button Google prototype have shown, automated cars do not need the same features and aren’t bound to the same design restrictions as manual cars. While the general size of the automobile won’t change drastically due to the size of the existing roads, expect future automated cars to be very different as they become more shared vehicles for service operators. Furthermore, as most cars on the road today carry one or two people at any given time, smaller two seat cars will become the norm while the larger cars will only be hired for special occasions.

Future Concept CarFuture Driverless Car Concept from 1957

Marker less roads

Visual markers on the road are for human drivers, but automated cars will communicate with the environment and different infrastructure using much better and more reliable technologies. As such, visual markers will no longer become necessary except for places where the road intersects intersects with human traffic (pedestrian or bicycle). Automated cars will be able to move in lanes without any visual lane markers.

Markerless-Highway

Cost of transportation will go down, but not so much

Currently in developed countries, consumers spend 10-20% of their income on transportation which includes automobiles, gas, public transport, etc. but not tax money spent on infrastructure. By being able to utilize cars 24/7 and not having vehicles depreciate in garages, the cost of operating a car will go down, but that’s only a fraction of the cost of transport. Insurance costs also will go down with safer cars, but there are still a lot of other costs such as energy and infrastructure. Energy cost may go down with electric cars (I’m not sure if the world supply of Lithium and battery systems can keep up or how fast cheaper, less scarce alternatives will appear) but infrastructure cost will inevitably go up with more technology involved in an automated driving system (sensors along the roads that can communicate with cars). With either taxes on people or companies, those costs will ultimately be passed on to the end consumer. Then there is the new service layer that would want its own cut of the pie, so while the cost of transportation will go down, don’t expect it to become virtually free.

Productivity will go up

Today, incredible amount of time and attention is wasted on driving. Simple manual work of turning the steering wheel and pressing the pedal consumes so much of our lives, and to make that unnecessary would be of great benefit to people. While not everyone’s work can be done on the go, those who can will see increased productivity in turning commuting time into work time. Tech companies are already starting to do this in Silicon Valley by offering their employees WiFi enabled shuttles. It may sound depressing to be working while commuting, but the end effect will be people being more productive with their time and spending more time outside of the office/work on leisurely activities.

There will be new exciting business models

Besides leasing and ownership, there aren’t too many different business models for private cars. However, when private transportation service becomes the primary way we travel, different companies will bring forth many different business models trying to cater to people’s various needs and price sensitivities. Some that come to mind: all you can ride (the ideal but expensive), ad supported (advertisements being played in the cabin), variable pricing (more expensive during peak hours). If you think navigating different cellphone plans are confusing…

The real value is the life and time saving

There are roughly 36,000 road fatalities in the US per year, a high but necessary cost of keeping people moving. In 2011, the the average American commuter spent 38 hours in traffic congestion. A 2009 AAA study estimated the societal cost of crashes at $300 billion and congestion at $97.7 billion, both astoundingly large figures. While automated driving won’t decrease these numbers to zero, there will significant reductions as drunk, distracted, tired, and reckless drivers are taken off the road and central algorithms move cars much more smoothly. A fully automated driving system will also require minimal distance between the cars (i.e “Platooning”), allowing for a much more dense usage of the roads.

Platooning

Some public transportation will remain

Busses will most likely disappear as they become replaced by automated car services (some countries will have a hard time doing this with stringent labor laws and strong unions) but not all existing public transportation will disappear. Within high density cities such as New York, Paris, Tokyo, London, there simply isn’t enough road space for everyone to use automated transportation services during peak hours. The existing metro systems will still thrive as the cheaper alternative for most people while the rich will exclusively use automated car services, just like they do with taxis now.

As for long distance rail, their fate is slightly more uncertain but I believe that they will still provide value as the energy cost of transporting a passenger with a train is much lower than with an automated car. As a result, I do believe that the California High-Speed Rail should still proceed. If anything, automated car may make the system more valuable as people will be able to more easily navigate Los Angeles once they arrive instead of relying on the current miserable public transport system.

Increased usage of land

It is said that 50% of land in L.A. is used for parking lots and roads. While we won’t be able to get rid of the roads, most parking spaces will become unnecessary once automated car services take over. Sure cars will need places to be repaired and maintained but that could be done at the edges of town. As more land become available for new use, expect land values to decrease and articles like “Ten things you can do with your garage now that you don’t need it anymore.”

Urban-Parking

Suburban renaissance

Suburbia, once the icon of middle class ideal has gotten a bad rap in the previous few decades as cultureless sprawl of oversized homes. Younger generations look to the city for its cultural density and navigability by foot, public transport, and/or bicycles. The pendulum will swing back as suburbia becomes more easily and conveniently traversed by automated car services. Instead of having large cities be the hotbed for cultural activities, many smaller centers each with its unique identity will emerge where people can escape for the evening but easily return to their bigger comfortables homes. Furthermore, as the internet keeps improving the discoverability of niche destinations, automated driving will help the access to these places.


Technologies inevitably change our world and the way we live, and technology as big as automated driving will have a massive impact on our society. While the first order effects maybe obvious, the second order, third order effects will be harder to forecast and there will be countless unintended consequences beyond our imagination. While I believe that automated driving will bring more positives than negatives, many people will lament the new technology destroying “life as we knew it.” The challenge for us isn’t to fight the inevitable progress of technology or blindly follow it but to think about the end results and make adjustments accordingly. What do you think will happen to the world once automated driving proliferates?

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Ultimate Frisbee Personality Types

The other day I was talking with my teammate about the incredible diversity of players we have on the Frankfurt Ultimate Team, and we started discussing how some players were similar and different. From there, the idea of “Ultimate Frisbee Personality Types” started to organically emerge.

A little background: the “team” I play for, Eintracht Frankfurt, is large, diverse, and much more of a community than just a team. While we have 30-50 “core” players, in the past year, more than 110 people have shown up to at least one practice. From there, we field numerous different teams for both competitive and “fun” tournaments. Many cities with so many players would have broken into few different teams, but Frankfurt sticks together, and this is something I love about our community.

In our discussions about the different players, three main typologies arose:

Free spirited
These are the people that give Ultimate the hippie stereotype, even though it is no longer true. Enamored by the community and the alternativeness of the game, these people not only love the sport but also the lifestyle.

Sportsman/Sportswoman
I avoided using the term Jock because of it’s negative connotation, but these are the people who treat Ultimate foremost as a sport and the ones who care more about improvement and winning. As Ultimate becomes more mainstream, I believe it will attract more and more of these kinds of people.

Intellectual
Again avoiding terms like geeks or nerds, these were the kinds of people who joined Ultimate in the initial growth era because it was a sport that involved skills, thinking, tactics, and athleticism while being generally free from the “Jock” culture. These are the people who love the game but aren’t too competitive and love the lifestyle but aren’t too radical.

This of course doesn’t mean that every player has to fit into one of the above personalities. People can be a mix of the different personality types and the better way of thinking about it is the following triangle:

Ultimate Frisbee Personality Types

Where do you belong? How does your team fill out the triangle?

I consider myself to be somewhere between Intellectual and Free Spirited while my friend thought I was somewhere between Intellectual and Sportsman.

Our team has players in every single part of the triangle, which I think is what makes our community diverse and great. Talking generalities and not mentioning any names:

  • The younger and newer players tended to be more on the right hand side of the triangle
  • The casual players were more on the left hand side of the triangle
  • This meant that the serious tournaments (like the German championships) are attended by people on the right while the rest play more “fun” tournaments
  • The “ambassadors” (people reaching out and attracting other players) were on the upper half of the triangle
  • There was a noticeable gap between the Intellectual and Free Spirited

These are of course general observations and there are many exceptions. How does this fit with your experience?

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If Super Mario was created today

If Super Mario was created today

 

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海外で見つけた変な日本食レストラン

旅行好きで海外生活21年4カ国、世界中でいろいろな日本食レストランを経験してきた。一応日本人、ぎりぎり日本人、でもやっぱり日本人なので日本とはちょっと違う点、変なところ、よく気づく。

 

内装が日本のレストラン以上に日本らしい:これは特にアメリカでよく見かける。鎧や刀が飾ってあったり暖簾やちょうちんが店内に飾られたり、外人にとってはエキゾチックなのかもしれないが日本人にとっては違和感大。

American-Izakayaシリコンバレーでよく行った居酒屋さん


マイポットの鍋屋:
アメリカにはひとつの大皿や鍋からみんなで食べる習慣がない。そしてそれ以上に衛生面の視点上懸念されるので和風の鍋屋さんに行くと料理がマイポットで出てくる(一席一席の前にガスコンロ)。そんな店で昔すき焼きを注文したら生卵なし。頼むと「本当にいいのか」って聞かれてしっかり余分取られた。

My-Pot


名前がなんか変だよ:
「SAMURAI」「ICHIBAN」「FUJI」などはよく見かけるがこのごろ日本の都市名を使ったレストランを良く見かけます。特に「KYOTO」という寿司屋さんは多い(京都市って海に面してないから寿司文化薄いのに)。ほかに「OSAKA」、「SHINJUKU」、「HOKKAIDO」なども観た。正直あんまりおいしそうには思えない。

Kyoto-Sushi


エビフライならず寿司フライ:
中南米でよく見かけます、巻き寿司が丸々フライされる光景…まあ物流がよくなかったり生物が心配ってのは分かるがカロリーが…

Fried-Sushi


日本人も現地人もやっていない日本食レストラン:
海外で日本人が立ち上げた日本食レストランは分かる。現地人が日本食レストランを立ち上げるのも納得する(日本人が日本でフランス料理店をするみたいな感じ)。しかしなぜ日本人でも現地の人間でもない人が日本食レストランを?パリ在住のときよく見かけた、中国人か韓国人が経営している日本食レストラン。韓国料理以上にブランド力があり中国料理以上に高級感(利益率)があるからだとは思うが味は絶対といっていいほど変。最近は初めて入る店には「こんばんわー」と挨拶して、もし返事がなかったり店員さんの目が点になるとすぐに店を出ます。


何でも載せます:
アメリカでよく行った日本人経営のちっちゃなお寿司屋さん、客が発案したお寿司何でも作ってくて、それを客が「うまい」って言ったら名前を付けてメニューに載せます。もちろんアメリカなのでクリームチーズやアボガド、何でもあり。

Sushi-Menuこれはメインメニュー、他の創作物は店内いっぱいに貼られてる


そこまでするか…ネタ五つで品数数十個:
イスラエルで興味本位で入った寿司屋、魚が手に入らないからだとと思うが、ネタ五つぐらいですごいバリエーションのお寿司を作っていた。同じ魚でもサンドイッチ型(もちろんご飯で)、ボール型、軍艦巻き、手巻き、細まきにしたり、いろいろな魚を混ぜ合わしたり、ソース使ったり、もう無茶苦茶。でも意外にお寿司と考えないで食べると悪くなかった。ちなみに店員さんはほとんどタイ人でした(経営者は分かりませんが)。営業努力にちょっと感動。

Sushi-Sandwich-Israel寿司サンドイッチ…


名前がなんか変だよパートII:
海外だとなんでも名前にSUSHIと付ければ日本食レストランになります。これは数年前、面白い名前見つけたら写真取り始めました。全部書いたらきりがないので数例:「スシゴブリン」「ハロースシ」「スシマニア」「スシヤキ」「スシランド」「スシパラダイス」

Hello-Sushiパリ


インスタントラーメンも一応日本食:
ラトビアの日本食レストランに入ったらあまりにも高かったので一番安いラーメンを注文、見事即席ラーメンに野菜乗っけた物が出てきた。しかも日本じゃ普通乗せないキャベツや人参。これがなんで25分もかかるの…


味噌汁が前菜:
これはよく見かける。西欧文化ではスープは前菜なので味噌汁も同じ感覚で一番最初に出てくる。自身は注文するときにご飯と一緒にってお願いしますが店員さんが日本人じゃなければ不思議に思われる。


酒ボム:
これは日本食レストランには限られませんがお酒の飲み方。ビール半分のパイントグラスにお箸二本乗せてその上にショットグラス一杯のお酒を乗せ、全員用意できたらみんな一気にテーブルをたたいて、ショットグラスがビールの中に落ち次第一気飲み。まわりは「サーケーボム」叫びながら…

Sake-Bomb
番外編

居酒屋はコース料理じゃないって:外人の友達と日本風居酒屋に行くと食べ物すぐなくなる。飲みながらちょびちょび食べる文化がないので食べ物でたらすぐに食いつく…こういう時はだいたい割り勘負けします。

 

しかし昔と比べると海外の日本食レストランのレベルはあがりました。一昔までは日本食=寿司だったのですが今になると、ラーメン屋、焼肉店、居酒屋など結構見かけます。三年前まで滞在していた食の都パリではお好み焼き、小鉢料理、うどん、和風パン、和風中華(!!!)の専門店が勇ましくがんばっています。

やっぱり日本人としては日本のいい食文化をどんどん世界に発信して欲しいです。

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Airport, a place where you do things you’ve been meaning to do, like setting up a cloud backup system

Airport

In modern life, besides being on the flight itself, the airport may be the single place where one has the largest chunk of waiting time on a (semi-)regular basis (depending on how often you fly). Besides the DMV (and equivalent government offices), rarely do you have 30-60 minutes of waiting.

Airports of course try to capitalize on this by turning the terminal into a shopping mall full of overpriced goods and souvenirs, but could it go further?

Many people have a large todo lists on which many items go un-ticked for a long time. Most of these are probably not possible in the airport, but how about setting up an online backup service?

I recently had my laptop stolen in Belgium and a friend of mine had her laptop stolen in Australia. Luckily for me, I had both a time machine backup at home in Germany and an cloud backup service set up so data loss was minimal. Unfortunately for my friend, she lost some data with her laptop that will most likely never resurface.

Back up is important, not just from theft but from hard drive failures and accidental coffee spills. I believe awareness is rising and tools are becoming easier to use, but I still have many friends who don’t backup their data.

Back to the airport.

What if online backup services had booths in airports to help people set up their backups? Many people travel with their laptop these days, people who use airports frequently are often business travelers and higher value individuals, and there is very little space requirement, just a standing booth with wireless or wired internet access and a person to help set up the installation. Payment can be done on the spot without the usual clumsy online transaction.

I see the target as professionals who’ve been meaning to set up an online backup system but haven’t had the time to do so. One challenge I imagine, however, is that these people may not be traveling with their own laptops but instead their company laptops and maybe a personal iPad. At that point, there isn’t much that can be done.

So, Backblaze (my favorite), Mozy, Carbonite, what do you think?

(I will pre-swallow the shame pill if this is already happening and I just don’t know about it)

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Dear class of 2004, how was your last ten years?

I was recently on campus at my Alma Mater, Rice University, and reminded of the fact that it’s been ten years, and all of my twenties, since my graduation. Cliche, but time flies.

So, fellow friends, classmates, and comrades from the class of 2004, how was your last ten years?

Did you do what you planned to do?
Did you accomplish what you wanted to accomplish?
Did you take a sharp turn? Do something completely different from your degree?
Did you get lucky? unlucky? succeed? fail?
Did you further your studies? work in a company? discover your passion?
Did you fall in love? get married? start a family?
Did you enjoy your last ten years?

My last tens years was incredible, full of unexpected twists and turns. Everything didn’t go as planned, and I unknowingly sacrificed stability for adventure, but I’ve learned so much and regret none of it. I hope my next ten years will be as fun, intense, and interesting.

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The expat life

One thing I like about the expat life is that it’s self selecting. Most expat communities are a village, especially the English speaking (mostly) non-married crowd. The danger is that word travels incredibly fast so you have to be on your best behavior or your reputation will supersede you. On the other hand, the inhabitants of the village are often well-traveled, adventurous, and generally interesting people. You rarely find bigoted, uneducated, or close-minded expats, the kind you want to filter out of bar conversations and cocktail parties.

I used to say that I love living in Paris because it’s the intersection of some of the coolest people in the world. While the people I’m meeting in Frankfurt aren’t as diverse (more professionals and less artist-types compared to Paris), I rarely go to a party or event with any less than five countries represented. The expat experience is a bonding one as well; we’ve all had our difficulties adjusting to new customs and cultures, though the bonding is probably stronger in a more foreign land like China or Paraguay. Besides the expat experience or traveling, however, common topics of interest could be hard to find sometime. I do miss being able to talk about Baseball or good Mexican food, both rarities in Europe.

Sometimes, I do wonder if I can keep doing this forever. One cannot be an expat in the same place for too long or one ultimately becomes an immigrant. The very nature of being an expat is the transience that comes with it. Many expats I know have returned home or settled into their new adopted country. Right now it’s hard to imagine myself staying anywhere forever, but will that change? Or can one be an expat for life? A lot of people say that starting a family is what ultimately causes one to settle down. However, I know few people who grew up in multiple countries with transient parents and they ultimately turned out all right, if not awesome. Why do many people think families have to be stationary?

I obviously don’t have the answers to these questions now. However, I feel like I’ll be answering them as I live this rather peculiar life.

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The frailty of cloud services

Xanga-Front-Page

Did you know Xanga is gone?

Did you even know what Xanga was?

To be fair, Xanga is not officially dead. The once flourishing blog platform has been rebirthed as Xanga 2.0 which actually is a rebadged open-source WordPress platform. All the features that made Xanga, Xanga, is no longer there. Gone are the eProps, the Pulses, the circles, not that anyone really cared.

Xanga was one of the original blog platforms, before Blogger, Blogspot, Tumblr, WordPress, Typepad. I joined Xanga in the summer of 2004, right after I graduated from college to chronicle my two month Eastern European journey and as a way to keep in touch with my friends from college. At one point I had close to thirty friends actively blogging on Xanga and commenting on each other’s posts. Last I checked, none of them were blogging on Xanga and only one kept up with blogging on a different platform.

I myself left Xanga in 2009 when I moved to Paris and spent an afternoon updating my online life (new hosting service for my website with a new WordPress installation). Without my friends on Xanga and a glut of confusing features that I didn’t need, it made less sense to remain on Xanga.

I didn’t delete my Xanga profile but instead just stopped updating it. Couple months ago, I noticed that I could no longer access my Xanga site and realized what happened to the service. When the founder came to the conclusion that Xanga was no longer working as a business, he decided to shutdown the service unless he could crowd raise $60k to keep the service alive. I didn’t realize this was happening, but luckily enough money was raised so that generic Xanga 2.0 could come into existence.

This was particularly a lifesaver because without it, I may have lost five years worth of posts (445 to be specific) into the vacuum of the cloud. Now all Xanga 1.0 (for a lack of better name) blogs are available to be downloaded, and I was able to port them to another WordPress installation on my website. Ironically, now that the blog is a WordPress installation, it’s actually easier to search through the archives than before. Xanga was notorious for not being search engine optimized.

We say that once something is online, it will never disappear. With this near blog death experience, I may not agree with that anymore. I’m sure parts of my blog were captured by the Wayback Machine but trying to reconstruct it may be logistical nightmare.

Long time ago I wrote about how digital media is so much more fragile than physical media because one hard drive crash could wipe out all digital photos of the ill-prepared family (equivalent of a home burning down with all the albums). I thought there would be a generation of kids with lost childhood pictures, but my opinion on the matter slowly changed as cloud based services started to proliferate (e.g. Facebook, Flickr, Picasa online, etc.). Privacy concerns aside, once pictures go online, they are there forever right?

Well, I’m not so sure anymore. Once upon a time, it was unimaginable that Eastman Kodak, ironically the company most involved in helping people capture memories, would go bankrupt and disappear (which it has for all intents and purposes). It’s not unimaginable that someday in the future, Google, Facebook, Yahoo will cease to exist as new technologies and companies bring forth a new era of media and communication.

So what is the best way of keeping data secure? Printing on archival paper and storing them in a Safety Deposit Box in a Swiss Bank?

(The cover picture is the last archive of my Xanga blog captured by the Wayback Machine, and surprisingly there are only few broken picture links)

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Dear thief

Dear person that stole my money and laptop from the hostel in Ghent.

Where are you going with your life?
Is this your profession? Robbing backpackers in hostels?
Or is this a temporary gig until you settle onto something stable?

I’m really curious, because I don’t know anyone else like you.

Do you have friends?
Are they criminals too?
Do you go home and trade notes about your most recent conquest?

What made you go down this dark path?
Did you one day wake up and say you’re going to rob people for a living?
Did something horrible happen to you that made you decide to take advantage of others?

Is it good business?
How often do you rob people?
How much do you make per month? Are you saving for your future or spending lavishly?

What other criminal activities do you partake in?
Are you dealing drugs? Smuggling contrabands?
Do you pickpocket as well?

Are you part of a criminal enterprise?
Is this a starting position before they move you higher?
Do you pay your dues to your bosses?

Is there family waiting for you back home?
Do you send them money? Part of your loot?
Are you married? with kids? What do you want them to grow up as?

I know you won’t answer these questions, but I really do want to ask. Where is your life going? What are your dreams?

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Thinking Doing Balance

thinking-doing

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